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A migraine is an extreme form of headache consisting of four stages. Individuals may experience severe symptoms lasting hours to days at a time.

Symptoms and Stages of a Migraine

The four stages of a migraine are prodrome, aura, attack, and post-drome.


Symptoms of prodrome:

  • Constipation

  • Neck stiffness

Male patient describing symptoms of migraine to physician
Digital illustration of migraine
  • Fluid retention

  • Food cravings

  • Increased yawning

  • Frequent urination

  • Mood changes, ranging from depression to euphoria

Symptoms of aura:

  • Vision loss

  • Difficulty speaking

  • Feeling of pins and needles sensations in the arm or leg

  • Numbness or weakness in the face or one side of the body

  • Visual phenomena, such as seeing shapes, bright spots, or flashes of light


Symptoms of attack:

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Throbbing or pulsating pain

  • Pain on one or both sides of the head

  • Sensitivity to light, sound, and possibly smell and touch

Symptoms of post-drome:

  • Feeling drained

  • Confusion

  • Weakness

  • Feeling elated

  • Brief pain triggered by certain movements

Man experiencing migraine at home

Patients should seek immediate medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:


  • Headache after a head injury

  • New headache pain that emerges after age 50

  • An abrupt, severe headache that feels like a thunderclap

  • Headache accompanied by fever, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, double vision, numbness, or weakness in part of the body (this could indicate a stroke)

  • Chronic headache that worsens after coughing, exertion, straining, or sudden movement

Causes of a Migraine

A migraine may be triggered by:

  • Hormonal medications

  • Alcoholic drinks

  • Caffeinated drinks

  • Stress

  • Bright or flashing lights

  • Loud sounds

  • Changes in sleep patterns

  • Processed foods and aged cheeses

  • Skipping meals

  • Intense physical activity

  • In women, hormonal changes, such as fluctuations in estrogen

  • Strong smells, such as paint thinner, secondhand smoke, and perfume

  • Changes in weather

  • Medications, such as oral contraceptives and vasodilators

  • Food additives, such as sweeteners and preservatives

Treatment Options

The right treatment for migraines will depend on the severity of symptoms and the patient’s unique condition. At Las Vegas Primary Care, patients may be treated with pain management therapy, joint and soft tissue injections, and occupational medicine.

Pain management therapy may include hot and cold therapy, massage, acupuncture, meditation, antidepressants, cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, opioids, tai chi, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and beta-blockers. Joint and soft tissue injections may also help alleviate migraines.

Migraines may interfere with daily life and impair a patient’s ability to perform job duties. In these cases, occupational medicine could help the patient adjust to the demands of the workplace as they recover from their injuries.

Staff at Las Vegas Primary Care are also trained to help employers make adjustments in the workplace to support employees suffering from migraines. Occupational medicine can help both employers and injured employees create a plan to move forward.

Advanced Treatment

Some patients may need advanced treatment. Advanced treatment for migraines, depending on the underlying cause, may include chiropractic adjustment and even surgery. Patients should speak to their physician at Las Vegas Primary Care to learn more about obtaining advanced treatment for migraines.


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Call us to schedule
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We provide
emergency services



9:00 AM - 5:00 PM


call us to schedule
an appointment at


we provide
emergency services